There is no chemical reaction. Now, it is possible that if you add concentrated sulfuric acid to the nitric it can become hot enough to break the HNO3 into water and NO2 gas. Has to do with heat, not a reaction between the two. Mixing of nitric and sulphuric acid Now, if we consider this in the context of organic chemistry we have a nitrating mixture.
When heated in the presence of organic materials we form the nitrating radical, used for nitrating a number of organic compounds such as phenol, toluene and benzene. Nitronium ion October 16, Q. Hi, I want to produce 2EHN. How can I do it? What should I do next? Thank you. The fact that you have started mixing acids without knowing what to do next tells me that you have no idea what you are doing and how hazardous this process can be.
Nitrating organic materials is a job for a qualified organic chemist with facilities to prevent thermal runaway with probably explosive results.
I suggest that you get qualified and competent expert advice and never start a chemical process without clearly knowing everything about the reaction and adequate means to control it and to safely dispose of the waste products.
The mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid is known as aqua regia.
Hi luchifer. Actually, aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, in about a ratio. I've always heard that organic chemistry was where the dreams of medical students die; Geoff reminds us that we should take that quite literally :- Regards. Dear Teacher, I need to produce NO2 for special reaction in industrial scale. Actually I don't want to produce nitric acid but one of way which I considered can be Ostwald's process but finally I don't need nitric acid and just I need NO2.
Another way, also could be Nitric Acid decomposition on mid temperature, it means I can proceed ammonia decomposition on Pt catalyst to produce NO and then to NO2, if the reaction atmosphere has enough amount of H2O then I will have nitric acid and then by it's decomposition NO2 will be produced. I would like to have your valuable comment on my uncooked concept to prove it to obtain cooked and feasible solution.
Thanks In advance. How is it prepared with 1 Normality? Please specify. Hi, Harshada. Sorry but I don't quite understand the question. If it's in Normality, which one is supposed to be 1 Normal?
If it's by weight, I'm not understanding at all. Please explain your situation. Is this a hypothetical question for student homework, or are you actually trying to prepare a solution for some specific purpose? Hi Harshada, ratio in acids is: 1 in volume? Which concentration each?
Of pure or diluted acids? Your definition is diffuse in the first part, so clarify and then just add some water : Regards. Hello everybody Can I use sulphuric acid instead of nitric acid to form an aqua regia?Nitration is a general class of a chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
More loosely the term also is applied incorrectly to the different process of forming nitrate esters between alcohols and nitric acid, as occurs in the synthesis of nitroglycerin.
The difference between the resulting structure of nitro compounds and nitrates is that the nitrogen atom in nitro compounds is directly bonded to a non-oxygen atom, typically carbon or another nitrogen atom, whereas in nitrate esters, also called organic nitrates, the nitrogen is bonded to an oxygen atom that in turn usually is bonded to a carbon atom nitrito group. There are many major industrial applications of nitration in the strict sense; the most important by volume are for the production of Nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene.
Nitration reactions are notably used for the production of explosives, for example the conversion of guanidine to nitroguanidine and the conversion of toluene to trinitrotoluene. However, they are of wide importance as chemical intermediates and precursors.
Millions of tons of nitroaromatics are produced annually. Typical nitration syntheses apply so-called "mixed acid", a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acids.
Melamine Nitrate: A Novel and Efficient Reagent for Regioselective Nitration of Phenols
This active ingredient, which can be isolated in the case of nitronium tetrafluoroborate also effects nitration without the need for the mixed acid. In mixed-acid syntheses sulfuric acid is not consumed and hence acts as a catalyst as well as an absorbent for water.
Alternative mechanisms have also been proposed, including one involving single electron transfer SET. Selectivity can be a challenge in nitrations because as a rule more than one compound may result but only one is desired, so alternative products act as contaminants or are simply wasted. Accordingly, it is desirable to design syntheses with suitable selectivity; for example, by controlling the reaction conditions, fluorenone can be selectively trinitrated  or tetranitrated.
The substituents on aromatic rings affect the rate of this electrophilic aromatic substitution. Deactivating groups such as other nitro groups have an electron-withdrawing effect. Such groups deactivate slow the reaction and directs the electrophilic nitronium ion to attack the aromatic meta position.
Deactivating meta-directing substituents include sulfonylcyano groups, ketoestersand carboxylates. Nitration can be accelerated by activating groups such as aminohydroxy and methyl groups also amides and ethers resulting in para and ortho isomers. According to another source,  a more controlled nitration of aniline starts with the formation of acetanilide by reaction with acetic anhydride followed by the actual nitration.
Because the amide is a regular activating group the products formed are the para and ortho isomers. Heating the reaction mixture is sufficient to hydrolyze the amide back to the nitrated aniline.Some of the most common items in your house might not be as safe as you think.
One example? The dangers of bleach, one of the most commonly used disinfectants in the world. In addition, one of the scariest dangers of bleach involves what happens when you mix it on purpose or without realizing it with other household chemicals. BuzzFeed includes three toxic bleach combinations on a list of common products never to mix, warning readers about what happens when bleach comes into contact with vinegar, ammonia or rubbing alcohol. Still, some of the dangers of bleach are not well-known, and people continue to mix products and expose themselves and their families to dangerous chemicals, all in the name of cleanliness.
To be specific, bleach is a disinfectant and stain remover. Bleach can be purchased in both liquid and powder forms. Many industrial processes also employ the use of bleach to kill germs, destroy weeds and bleach wood pulp. Depending on the type of bleach you get, it may or may not contain chlorine.
Typically, bleaches either contain an active ingredient of chlorine sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide. After using water as a base, a typical bottle of bleach contains: 2. Children exposed to the same levels of sodium hydroxide in air as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios.
In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of sodium hydroxide in air found nearer to the ground. Direct contact with the solid or with concentrated solutions causes thermal and chemical burns leading to deep-tissue injuries.
Very strong solutions of sodium hydroxide can hydrolyze proteins in the eyes, leading to severe burns and eye damage or, in extreme cases, blindness. Ingestion of sodium hydroxide can cause severe corrosive injury to the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and stomach. Stridor, vomiting, drooling, and abdominal pain are early symptoms of sodium hydroxide ingestion.
Ingestion may lead to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and shock. While home cleaning products do not contain enough sodium hydroxide to cause some of these effects on their own such as chemical burnsthere is already evidence that aerosol use of bleach does have an impact on the respiratory systems of both adults and children. Chlorine bleach is not believed to bioaccumulate in the body, but the damage it does may compound over time.
Chlorine poisoning is a definite concern when using bleach products with sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride. This may occur when bleach an ammonia are mixed more on that in a moment ; or if bleach is directly ingested.
Symptoms including breathing difficulty, swelling of the throat and many more complications. Sodium Hypochlorite: This common bleaching agent is one of the things that gives bleach its strong scent. A common misconception occurs when people assume this ingredient is where the chlorine in chlorinated bleach comes from; however, like I mentioned above, it occurs as a reaction between sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride.
Sodium Chloride: Table salt is another name for sodium chloride. Sodium Chlorate: One of the breakdown substances from sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorate is known to accelerate and increase flammability.
Sodium Polyacrylate: In the U. Sodium cc16 Alkyl Sulfate: Found in some bleach products, this alkyl sulfate causes eye and skin irritations and is potentially toxic to the liver after persistent inhalation. Hydrogen Peroxide: I use peroxide regularly — and this ingredient is actually great! On its own, hydrogen peroxide can help to clean grout, tile, toilets, tubs and more. In the 18th century, four scientists made discoveries related to chlorine that set off the creation of chlorine bleach as we understand it today.
French scientist Claude Berthollet was the first to create sodium hypochlorite and recognize chlorine as a bleaching agent.This page looks at the way the reactions of the benzene ring in phenol are modified by the presence of the attached -OH group.
It covers the reactions of phenol with bromine water and with nitric acid. The -OH group attached to the benzene ring in phenol has the effect of making the ring much more reactive than it would otherwise be. For example, as you will find below, phenol will react with a solution of bromine in water bromine water in the cold and in the absence of any catalyst.
It also reacts with dilute nitric acid, whereas benzene itself needs a nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. Figure: One of the lone pairs on the oxygen atom in the -OH group overlaps with the delocalised ring electron system giving a structure rather like the right.
The donation of the oxygen's lone pair into the ring system increases the electron density around the ring. A benzene ring undergoes substitution reactions in which the ring electrons are attacked by positive ions or the slightly positive parts of molecules. In other words, it undergoes electrophilic substitution. If you increase the electron density around the ring, it becomes even more attractive to incoming electrophiles.
That's what happens in phenol. The -OH group has more activating effect on some positions around the ring than others for reasons which go beyond UK A level.
That means that incoming groups will go into some positions much faster than they will into others. The net effect of this is that the -OH group has a 2,4-directing effect. That means that incoming groups will tend to go into the 2- position next door to the -OH group or the 4- position opposite the -OH group. You will get hardly any of the 3- isomer formed - it is produced too slowly.
If bromine water is added to a solution of phenol in water, the bromine water is decolorized and a white precipitate is formed which smells of antiseptic.
The precipitate is 2,4,6-tribromophenol. Notice the multiple substitution around the ring - into all the activated positions.
The 6- position is, of course, just the same as the 2- position. Both are next door to the -OH group. The reactions with nitric acid are complicated because nitric acid is an oxidizing agent, and phenol is very easily oxidized to give complex tarry products.
What follows misses all that complication out, and just concentrates on the ring substitution which happens as well.Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C 6 H 5 OH.
It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. Mildly acidicit requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonatesepoxiesBakelitenylondetergentsherbicides such as phenoxy herbicidesand numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Phenol is an organic compound appreciably soluble in water, with about The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxideis far more water-soluble.
Phenol is a weak acid. In aqueous solution in the pH range ca. One explanation for why phenol is more acidic than aliphatic compounds containing an -OH group is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. In this way, the negative charge on oxygen is delocalized on to the ortho and para carbon atoms through the pi system.
In support of the second explanation, the p K a of the enol of acetone in water is However, the situation changes when solvation effects are excluded. The phenoxide anion is a strong nucleophile with a nucleophilicity comparable to the one of carbanions or tertiary amines.
Generally, oxygen attack of phenoxide anions is kinetically favored, while carbon-attack is thermodynamically preferred see Thermodynamic versus kinetic reaction control.A-Level H2 Chemistry: Halogenation of Benzene via Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Rxn Mechanism
Phenol exhibits keto-enol tautomerism with its unstable keto tautomer cyclohexadienone, but only a tiny fraction of phenol exists as the keto form. Phenol therefore exists essentially entirely in the enol form. Phenoxides are enolates stabilised by aromaticity.
Under normal circumstances, phenoxide is more reactive at the oxygen position, but the oxygen position is a "hard" nucleophile whereas the alpha-carbon positions tend to be "soft". Phenol is highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution as the oxygen atom's pi electrons donate electron density into the ring. By this general approach, many groups can be appended to the ring, via halogenationacylationsulfonationand other processes.
However, phenol's ring is so strongly activated—second only to aniline —that bromination or chlorination of phenol leads to substitution on all carbon atoms ortho and para to the hydroxy group, not only on one carbon. Phenol reacts with dilute nitric acid at room temperature to give a mixture of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol while with concentrated nitric acid, more nitro groups get substituted on the ring to give 2,4,6-trinitrophenol which is known as picric acid.
Aqueous solutions of phenol are weakly acidic and turn blue litmus slightly to red. Phenol is neutralized by sodium hydroxide forming sodium phenate or phenolate, but being weaker than carbonic acidit cannot be neutralized by sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate to liberate carbon dioxide.
When a mixture of phenol and benzoyl chloride are shaken in presence of dilute sodium hydroxide solution, phenyl benzoate is formed. This is an example of the Schotten—Baumann reaction :. When phenol is reacted with diazomethane in the presence of boron trifluoride BF 3anisole is obtained as the main product and nitrogen gas as a byproduct. When phenol reacts with iron III chloride solution, an intense violet-purple solution is formed. Because of phenol's commercial importance, many methods have been developed for its production, but only the cumene process is the dominant technology.
It involves the partial oxidation of cumene isopropylbenzene via the Hock rearrangement :  Compared to most other processes, the cumene process uses relatively mild conditions and relatively inexpensive raw materials. For the process to be economical, both phenol and the acetone by-product must be in demand. A route analogous to the cumene process begins with cyclohexylbenzene. It is oxidized to a hydroperoxideakin to the production of cumene hydroperoxide.
Via the Hock rearrangement, cyclohexylbenzene hydroperoxide cleaves to give phenol and cyclohexanone.Melamine nitrate MN as a novel nitration reagent was easily prepared. Regioselective nitration of phenols to their corresponding o -nitrophenols occurred using MN with p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst in good to excellent yields.
A distinct advantage of this method is the easy separation of products by simple filtration. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the most important and widely studied reactions and industrial processes.
The typical nitration procedure requires use of mixed acids such as concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Nitrophenols are important intermediates for the manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals [ 1 ]. But phenols are highly reactive; therefore the nitration of phenols by mixed acids is always associated with the formation of dinitro compounds, oxidized products, and unspecified resinous materials.
So a lot of mild nitration processes for phenols have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. Especially, in recent years, various nitrate salts for phenols have been reported [ 2 — 10 ]. However, some of the nitrating reagents are poorly regioselective and uneconomical.
Considering these concerns, there is still a good scope for research towards finding economic, mild reagents for regioselective nitration of phenols. Melamine is a widely used fire retarder in polymers.
The amino groups of melamine are stable to oxidation condition such as H 2 O 2in which it can form stable adduct with H 2 O 2 [ 1112 ]. This inspired us to think that melamine may be stable in oxidative acid such as nitric acid.
So in this paper we prepared the melamine nitric acid complex MN Figure 1 and used it as nitration reagent. Herein we report this efficient and facile nitration procedure for phenols using MN Scheme 1. The preparation of melaminium nitrate is simple by the direct reaction of melamine with nitric acid at room temperature. So in the following reactions, acetone was used as solvent. Different other catalytic acids like, acetic acid, benzoic acid, and sulfuric acid were also tested but they either gave trace product in acetic acid or benzoic acid or very complicated products in sulfuric acid ; so p-toluenesulfonic acid was chosen as catalytic acid.
The results of nitration reactions of other phenolic compounds by using MN as nitrating reagent were summarized in Table 2. Ortho-orientation relative to hydroxyl group and mono-nitration of phenolic compounds was observed.
In the cases of 4-methylphenol and 4-phenylphenol, orth-nitro relative to the OH group products in excellent yields was also produced. When 1, 4-benzenediol Table 2entry 9 was treated with MN under reflux for 24 h, it was oxidized to para-benzoquinone. When resorcinol or phloroglucinol was refluxed with MN, complicated tarry products were produced not shown in Table 2.Phenol is an oxygen substituted organic compound.
Phenol is an insoluble organic compound in water. Phenol has a characteristic smell and can act as a germicidal. Preparing phenol, reactions of phenol, characteristics of phenol are sections you have to learn under phenol lesson in organic chemistry.
Phenol makes hydrogen bonds with water. Therefore phenol should be dissolved in water. Adding more phenol into the water will make separate layers of both substances. We cannot synthesis phenol from benzene in a single step. We have to follow several steps to prepare phenol from benzene.
Phenol is ortho para activator and a weak acid. Electrons density of benzene ring in phenol is much higher than benzene. Therefore substitutions reactions of phenol occurs much easier than benzene.
Phenol reactions and their characteristics of those reaction are explained below in detail. Those cases are highlighted in this tutorial. Phenol reacts strong metals such as sodium, potassium to give hydrogen gas and sodium phenoxide. This indicates, phenol has acidic characteristics. Phenol is a weaker acid than carbonic acid. Phenol react with sodium hydroxide NaOH and give sodium phenoxides.
This reaction can be used identify phenol and aliphatic alcohols because aliphatic alcohols do not react with aqueous NaOH. When this reaction occurs, temperature of the reaction mixture increases because this reaction is an exothermic reaction.
Phenol reacts with halogens easily and give precipitates. Also we don't need to add lewis acids such AlCl 3. Aqueous Br 2 solution is yellow brown in colour. When phenol is added to the Br 2 aq solution, the white precipitate, 2,4,6-tribromophenol is formed. Phenol and dilute nitric acid react to give a mixture of ortho-nitrophenol and para-nitrophenol.
This shows phenol is a strong activator because we do not need concentrated HNO 3 or heating. Phenol does not react with sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3. This is used to identify phenol and carboxylic acid because carboxylic acid reacts with sodium carbonate and emit carbon dioxide gas. So we can see, phenol is less acidic than carboxylic acid.